#£E /6IEI76E OF-/onn.p
THE NATIONAL PHONOGRAPH PUB. CO..LT)
~ WORLD BUILDING, NEW YORK.
J EVERYMAN’S TOBACCO.
7T vr */ o
without the Trade
/ Situated iu the Immediate Section of Country
(that produces a grade of Tobacco, that in tex-
M -*. k of thP Bull onV ure » flavor and quality is not grown elsewhere
D hi the world, unci being in position to command
eacn package. tho c q lo | ee ol * a n offerings upon this market, we
|spare pains nor expense to give the trade
the new york)
k WIT I AST OR, LENCX AND
I TILOEN FOUN&aTUN*.
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMP SNTT
EDISON BUILDING, BROAD ST., NEW YORK,
ELECTRIC STREET RAILWAYS.
ELECTRIC LIGHTING--Arc and Incandescent.
For Streets, Public and Private Buildings, Hotels, Theatres,
Churches, Steamships, Mills, Factories, Central Stations, etc.
ELECTRIC GENERATORS--For Light and Power.
Incandescent, Are, and Electric Power Plants of all descriptions
^ ancl sizes, for Central Stations, Isolated or Mill Lighting.
ELECTRIC LAMPS— Incandescent and Arc.
Edison Incandescent. Lamps of all kinds, to rit any socket.
All Lampb guaranteed.
ELECTROLIERS— Electric Light and Gas.
Electrical Fixtures of Finest Workmanship and Most Artistic
Design. Combination Fixtures, for Electric Light and Gas.
“ STATIONARY MOTORS.
M^lls, Mines, Factories, Warehouses, Elevators, Etc. Motors
tor. every possible duty.
INSULATED WIRE— Cables, Conductors, Etc.
Electric Cables and Conductors (Underground and Aerial) for
Telephone, Telegraph, Electric Lighting; Flexible Cords, etc.
\ ' - MAIN DISTRICT OFFICES:
Canadian District: Dank of Commerce Building , Toronto , Can .
• Central District: JjJalto Building, Chicago % Jti.
Eastern District: Edison Budding , Broad Street, Sew York.
Sew England District: 3S Pearl Street , Boston, Mass.
- I*<i*'ijic Coast District: Edison Budding , 1 Vi Bush Street 9 San Francisco , Cal.
Pacific North west District: Ft eischner Budding, Portland , Ore.
Rocky Mountain District: Masonic Building , Den re r . Col.
Southern District: JO Decatur Street , Atlanta, tia.
Carbon Fapers / Ribbons
9 ' * y •
FOR ALL WRITING MACHINES.
You will find our goods in use in a large number
of the best Typewriting Offices
Ribbons, 75c. Each, $7.50 Per Dozen.
No. 1 Carbon Paper, $3.00 Per 100 Sheets.
QUALITY GUARANTEED SATISFACTORY.
SEND FOB CIBCT7LAB. AGENCIES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES.
MEW YORK CARBON AMO TRANSFER PAPER COMPANY,
Ho. 53 Maiden Lane,
EDISOIST LALAN JDE BATTERY
THE PHONOCRKPH UNO PHONOCRKPH-CRKPHOPHONB.
130 Sciii* Stout. " C 0
ipfye \io rtb erttoerican Phonograph (g
fph* e^mencan Qrapbophone (o
o9a October 7th, 1890. /<ff
Edison Manufacturing. 'Cony any,
19 Dey Street,
New York City*’*
The four (4) *T- cells.^Ediaon Lalande battery, 900 arryefe
hours, set up in our off ice* ..result ed in running a Phonograph con-
tinuously for 285 hours* This wo consider an excellent result *
The Eastern Pennsylvania Phonograph Co-j.
JAMES F. KELLY, (general Sales Agent.
19 DET STREET- x-r
. V( )!.. I.]
°<I FEBRUARY, 1891. 1»
Tai-jle of Contents.
Tin: Real Mission of the Phonograph, .
The King of Phonographs,
A Practical Test, . .
Drilling by the Phonograph, .
The Phonograph Album, . !
A Frank Confession,
A Phenomenal Feat in Reporting.
The Manufacture of Musical Cylinders,
"Stage Fright” Induced by the Phonograph,
Th* Tariff on Phonographs, .
By W. B. St men son.
By J ttl ia n Ralph ,
By G. //. C,
The Footprints <4psSound,
'A’Shtfi.' Trial Heard Through the Phonograph,
A Nrw Automatic Phonograph, .
.Tjie French Tariff and Electricity,
Thei£u4>-Electric Piles and Generators,
The Founder^ of Electrical Science,
Electricity in Pjt^jk of Steam,
By Frank M. Deems, Pit. /)., M. D.,
By F. (A,
By F. ^Tc Bennett ,
By Felix Da/tn, Ph . D.,
By F. Me Bennett , .
By William J. Hammer ,
• • •
By E. W. C, .
The Telegraph ^5 War,
An Elastic Accumulator,
The Telephone in Paris,
•4 ... ,f ... ..
The First Typewriter.
Possibilities of the Tweavriter, .....
Phonograph Chat, . * .
V^Mkisi erschafi- System Taught by Phonograph, By Edward J). Easton,
’ Business Suggestions,
Authors and Publishers, ......
What the People Say,
Splendid Tributes to the Phonograph, . *
THE NORTH AMERICAN PHONOGRAPH CO.,
OWNERS OF THE PATENTS OF THOMAS A. EDISON
Recording, Perpetuating, and Reproducing Articulate Speech,
and Other Sounds, and Exclusive Agent for
the Sole Licensee of the
AMERICAN GRAPHOPHONE COMPANY.
Principal Offices: 160 to 164 Broadway, New York.
Name of Company.
Alabama Phonograph Co
Cen’l Nebraska **
>-^Chicago Ccn'l “
■State Phono. Co. of Illinoi
Texas Phonograph Co. . .
West. Penn. •
..Anniston. Ala ....
..Washington. D. C.
. . Kearney. Neb. .
..Sioux City, Iowa.
. .Topeka, Kan. . . .
. . Louisville, Tvy . *. .
..Detroit, Mich ..
. . St. Louis, Mo.. . .
. Boston. Mass..
. . New York, N. Y ’
..Newark. X. J. .
. .Cincinnati. Ohio.
..San Francisco. Cal
. . .Spokane Falls, Wash
...Sioux Falls. So. Dak
. .Galveston, Tex. .
Cheyenne, Wy. Ter
. . . Alabama.
. Delaware. Maryland, and Dist. of Col.
. . Colorado.
. .Western part of Suite of Nebraska.
..Cook County. Illinois.
..Eastern part of State of Pennsylvania.
. . Florida.
. . Kansas and New Mexico.
. . Kentucky.
. . Missouri, Arkansas, and Indian Ter.
. . Montana.
..New England States.
..New York State.
. .Eastern part of State of Nebraska.
. .New Jersey.
..Virginia. North and South Carolina.
..Arizona. California, and Nevada.
j Oregon. East +£ long. d Idaho
i Washing n. “44
. .Suite of Illinois, exclusive of Cook Co.
. .West, part State Pa. and W. Virginia.
. . Wisconsin.
I Oregon, West of 44 0 long.
• * ) Washing n. “ “ 44* “
. . Wyoming.
A magazine devoted to all interests connected with the re-
cording ol sound, the reproduction End preservation of speech,
the Telephone, the Typewrite r, and t he progress of Electricity.
ONE YEAR, - - - • $1.00
SINGLE NUMBERS. 10
Pos tagf id,
V. H. McRAE, Manager,
Pulitzer Building, R 00 0^127. NEW YORK.
THE Phonogram, having special facilities in its circulation
through the vUst commercial system occupied by the Phono-
graph. Telephone, and other Electrical! Devices, presents an
exceptionally valuable advertising medium. The rates arc rea-
sonable and will be furnished on appli cation.
relating to the Phonogpoph, Typewriter, or Electricity, In any
of their practical applications, is cordially invited, and the cooper-
ation ot all electrical thinkers and workers earnestly desired.
Cle;utJ:oncisc, w«jJi-*’ulUn ^rtiflcs arc especially welcome; and
communications, views, no\vs items, local new
or any information likely to interest clectrici
fully received and checrfufly acknowledged.
The Retfl Mission of the Phonograph.
Wk believe that we ran utter fio truer words of
•counsel to the many phonograpn*<ompanies now
in the United States, than when we urge them to
mike the genuine and legitimate use of the
phonograph paramount to all of its attractive
qualities as a mere coiiwn-the-slot device for the
temporary admiration of the multitude.
To a certain degree, the advertisement which
the instrument has derived by reason of its exhi-
bition in public places, has proved advantageous
artd even profitable, hut the gain is by no means
commensuraj.q with that which will accrue when
the phonograph is adopted in the counting-rooms,
offices and libraries of the merchants and profes-
sional men of the country, and is regarded as
something more than the toy and plaything of
women and children.
The real mission of the phonograph is that of a
helper. Its life and greatness among the labor-sav-
ing mechanisms of the world will depend on this
fact. It is a humanized bunch of iyon -nerves and
sinews that has come among us to relieve the
world more or less, of mental strain; to bring the
world's workers in closer contact with the means
of multiplying their power, saving time, and pre-
serving that which, without it, would escape all
record; to give to men, women and children alike
the inestimable privilege of hearing repeated the
41 thoughts that breathe and words that burn."
To the capitalist, merchant or public man whose
desire it is to preserve his secrets from publicity,
the phonograph is his confidential secretary. It
requires no human intermediary, whose fearless
gossip may be bought or sold, to interpret what
its intelligent ear has heard; its confidence is re-
served for the master and his friend. In the si-
lence of his study the minister may whisper the
themes of his morrow’s sermon; the lawyer pre-
pare his brief; in the sick-room the invalid may
dictate his last will and wishes, and feel' that the
tones of his voice will be a sweet heritage to
those he may leave behind; to the reporter, whose
business it is to transcribe the speeches of the
orator, it is a boon for which there is no equiva-
lent. It was printed only the other day, that the
marvelous debates in Congress, covering as they
sometimes do from twelve to twenty hours, can
only be reproduced in the next ensuing Congres-
sional Record through the agency of the phono-
Yet in the face of all this combination of valu-
able use, this ability to lessen the labor of men
and women, our little iron confidante and friend,
that we may awaken in the night and talk and
listen to as if it were another self, is ‘disparaged
and humiliated 'by .being placed side by side with
the nickel-in-the-slot weighing machines, and
'/ . ' * N
every other speculative attraction of a circus show
or a bar room, in order that it may turn an honest
■ v V^e repeat, therefore, that the companies which
have been organized throughout the United States
are doing themselves injustice when they limit
their operations to the introduction of the phono-
graph in places where its novelty will quickly dis-
appear and its profits cease to count.
We are aware this vein of reflection will arouse
the enmity of small men. Indeed, a mere hint in
the direction we are aiming, which appeared in
the last number of The Phonogram .provoked
James. L. Andcm, the President and General
Manager of the Ohio Phonograph Company, to
write to us: “ We do not care to subscribe to and
pay for a magazine which promtilg-alcs views the
exact opposite of those we entertain in regard to
our own business#.and to aid in circulating such a
magazine;" but we wish to say to Mr. Andem,
and all others like him, that men who cannot stand
honest argument without flinching, and who show
the weakness of their intellectual fibre by refusing
support to a magazine which they cannot sec is
practically their own weapon of defense and of-
fense, do not fitly represent the mighty power
that is latent in the phonograph and awaiting the
development at the hands of real men whose
brains arc above five cents’* worth of cheap music
doled out in gin shops by this much-disparaged
and misunderstood instrument.
It is the mission of this magazine to teach the
masses the great things which the phonograph is
intended to accomplish. The pleasure it affords
is one thing. Its work as a lafipr-saver is another.
The Phonogram plants its standard in the broad
road that leads to the grander results.
V V. H. McRae.
The King of Phonographs. .
The nineteenth century, having arrogated to
itself the right to peer into the arcana of nature,
study her secret elements and force them to sub-
mit to her will, has asserted and maintained an
individuality far exceeding that of her sister cen-
This is the century of grand inventions. And
what a record it shows! From steam to electric-
ity, light, sound, explosive agents— each force
thoroughly exploited and subdued. The latest
comet on the horizon of this wonderful system is
the new phonograph. Not content with enacting
the role of a recorder, a repeater of sonorous ora-
torical periods, dry law or tedious statistics,
entering boldly the domain of the nymph Echo»
and imitating al! her pretty reverberations; con-
veying to you in solemn tones the last words of
the dying; soothing your ear with the melodies of
skilled vocalists or the combined strains of a full
orchestra, one would suppose that it had usurped
functions sufficient to entitle it to the well-earned
title of King of machines. Yet it still goes on
conquering and to conquer. Its last arena is the
court-room and the halls of legislative assemblies.
In the first, it unerringly reflects the contradictory
statements of the perjured witness and the double-
dealing lawyer: this fact will come to be known in
lime by the * coi polloi of every class, and they will
be more guarded when the formidable detective
stands near with eager, open- ear to catch their
In the latter, its warning presence will consti-
tute a salutary check to the unscrupulous state-
ments of the partisan, the inane platitudes of the
empty-headed politician, or the high-handed rul-
ings of the newly fledged official leader.
The phonograph soon i > be presented to the
public is so contrived as to have its powers of
catching and reconveying sounds " manifolded,"
if I may employ a technical term. It' resembles,
in the wonderful world of sound, one of those
gigantic lenses used in modern telescopes which
sweeps the heavens, and lakes in objects hitherto
undiscovered to the human eye, and lays bare the
secrets of the starry system.
I see but one single function remaining to be
filled by this magic instrument, which is, to seek
the sunny South and let a mocking-bird pour into
its capacious throat the whole marvelous reper-
toire of which he holds the keys. That will in-
deed be "something new under the sun."
• ♦ • - -
In the second issue of our magazine we are en-
abled to report to our readers a progress in the
development of those qualities inherent in the
phonograph, which bring it to a degree of perfec-
tion hitherto unconceived by the world; and a
marked extension of scope and improvement in
detail on the part of its coadjutor, The Phono-
Every wave of information sent out by the
press to the civilized inhabitants of the globe car-
ries back to its starting point a reflex wave of in-
telligence. This is, of course, not designed or pre-
concerted, but is clearly the effect of a natural law.
Correspondents, patrons, friends, all become a
medium of communication, and thus reciprocity
is established. In this way The Phonogram per-
forms a double duty for its public, and ascertains
a fact of great interest to all connected with the
instrument or its representative; viz., that there
are vast numbers of intelligent people in our
country, wholly unacquainted with the uses and
sphere of the phonograph, who are most desirous
to acquire full information as to its capabilities. *
This fact suggests a wide field of effort to all
who wish to promote the success of the phono-
graph, and its organ, Ths Phonogram.
We therefore, as the pilot directing the course
of the vessel, counsel those engaged in executing
the movements necessary for its safe-conduct, to
strain every nerve in order to sustain the pub-
lication which has evoked this important intel-
ligence, as it is the resolute and unflagging oars-
man that conducts the boat in triumph first to
A PRACTICAL TEST.
The following has just l»cen received, and is
such a strong endorsement of the position we have
taken in ouf editorial, that ‘we are glad of the op-
portunity to present it to our readers, as a practi-
cal exemplification of our own ideas on the subject.
It is a letter from the proprietor of Stevenson's
Phonographic Exchange; Chicago, 111. He writes:
To the Editor of the Phonogram;
Dear Sir . — The application of the pho-
nograph to business uses is of such recent
origin that any information in regard to its
operation and the methods of applying it,
can hardly, fail to be of interest to the ma-
jority of your readers. That the phono-
graph is a thoroughly practical, useful bus-
iness machine is beyond any question; but
to a large extent it may be said that many
' the methods of applying it are, as yet,
* theoretical and experimental, and of course
liable to considerable change as the ma-
chine grows in public favor.
So far, the method which the writer has
found mosV^uccessful is what may be call-
ed ^he Contract System of Typewriting Ser-
vice; that is, we make a contract to place
at the service of customers a phonograph,
* _ ancFto furnish them with typewritten tran-
scripts of their dictation to same, to a cer-
tain amount daily for a given sum per
month, collecting and returning cylinders
with transcripts as often as may be neces-
sary to meet the requirements of individual
During the greater part of 1890 I have
given this method and the phonograph as
thorough and complete a test as could weH
be desired by any one. My list of custom-
ers includes architects, editors, advertising
agents. Board of Trade men, lecturers, re-
porters, surgical instrument and physicians’
supply houses, etc., etc., and the following
outline of a day’s work may l>e taken as a
fair sample of the daily test to which I
have subjected the machine during that
The first lot of cylinders received are
from the editor of a railway newspaper, and
contain short editorials for the next issue of
his paper. The first item deals with the
construction of the first railway in Siam;
the next, with the great activity in railway
construction in Brazil; another, with the
construction of an electric railway, for mail
purposes only, between Buenos Ayres and
Monte Video, across the La Platte River;
then the construction of a railway along the
Congo River in Central Africa, from Stanley
Pool to Stanley Falls;* and now the subject
of railway sanitation and hygiene occupies
the attention and ability of the operator;
followed by an article on the financial situ-
The next lot of cylinders comes from an
architect’s office, and contains mason’s and
carpenter’s specifications for the erection of
a new 14-story building, introducing a great
many technical terms which try the vocab-
ulary of the operator to the utmost.
• Another lot of cylinders comes from a
surgical instrument and physicians’ supply
house, and contains general correspondence
.regarding orders for instruments and drugs
with dreadful Latin names, but they are dis-
posed of by the operator in a manner that
proves entirely satisfactory to the parties
who dictated them.
Our next supply comes from an advertis-
ing agent, whose correspondence is some-
what easier to handle, although many
strange words and phrases are used that one
would hard.ly expect to find clinging to a
simple “ ad.”
A civil engineer, whose letters are full of
references to “ single span,” “ double span ”
“bridges,” “steel girders,” “plates,” “iron
roofs,” “stringers,” “brackets,” “ I beams,”
etc., supplies the next lot of cylinders.
By this time we have got pretty well along
in the afternoon, and our next “ consign-
ment of talk ” comes from a Board of Trade
firm. We are soon dancing about in the
wheat and corn pits, now writing a bearish
and anon a bullish letter.
From these prosaic subjects we turn with
pleasure to attend to the correspondence of
the secretary of a popular musical club,
which closes the day's work, and we depart
home feeling that we have added something
to our store of knowledge 1 and at the same
time done a good day's work.
Having had over eight years’ experience
as a practical stenographer aifd typewriter,
I feel competent to judge afiKto the merits
of the phonograph as a stenographer. It is
undoubtedly a wonderfully perfect machine,
capable of doing all that its investor claims
for it, and destined to follow th(^ typewriter
into every business office. I confess that I
am an enthusiast, but a practical enthusiast,
as will be seen from the above recital, and
.nothing pleases me better than to be seated
alongside my No. 2 typewriter with a good
round voice to transcribe. The phonograph
is a continual incentive to increased speed
on the typewriter; great speed has already
been developed on the Remington, but with
the increasing use of the phonograph great-
er efficiency may be looked for from the
average operator than is the case at the
Drilling by the Phonograph.
An interesting experiment was made
at the Washington Light Infantry Armory
severa evenings ago, in the National
Capital, after the conclusion of the lec-
ture, to determine whether it is not feasi-
ble to use the phonograph in armories for
the purpose of giving music to the com-
panies while drilling. The experiment was
tried by the representative of Edison's pho-
nograph, wKb is confident that the music
played into the phonograph by the Marine
Band can be reproduced loud enough to be
heard distinctly in the largest hall. General
Ordway is much interested in the experi-
ment, believing that it will be invaluable in
teaching men the correct step, and cadence.
The object of the experiment is an eco-
nomical one only. It is impossible to use
the band as often for the purpose of instruc-
tion as would be necessary to give the les-
sons all around, since the cost would be an •
extremely heavy one. Should the phono-,
graph music suffice, each guardsman can
have all the music marching drills he needs
at a very small expense to the guard.
The Phonograph Album.
A photoc-rath of the human voice is
much more valuable to the curious collector
than a picture of the face, even when •ac-
companied by an autograph. A favor-
ite phase of the phonograph furore is the
collection of specimens of recitations or
singing from popular artists of the stage, .
and one gentleman of this city has secured
cylinders representing vocally nearly every
artist of any note who has been seen here
for the last year. The collection is unique,
because many of the records have no dupli-
cate in existence, and the owner can give a
six-hours’ entertainment in his own house
at any time, presenting the different artists,
whose voices he has “bottled up,” so to
speak, in some of their most popular and
BY JULIAN RALPH.
have no fear as to the sagacity of their
HKN I was asked to contribute
to the Phonogram, I plagued
myself with a cross-examina-
tion that lasted more than a
week in an effort to hit upon a
subject upon which to write. As writing is
my profession, the experience is an uncom-
.mqp one, yet at the end of the ordeal I was
as barren of a suggestion as at the outset.
In desperation I read the Phonogram for
inspiration. The little magazine surprised
me. If gave to at least this one voracious
reader of current literature more timely,
serviceable, and intensely interesting in-
formation than any single number of any
periodical 1 have read in many years.
The editor of the Phonogram will read
this without having had the slightest pre-
vious notiop what my choice of a subject
wa^ k u be, and therefore the general reader
will understand that if what I set down here
is high prais^ of this publication the com-
mendation is general and sincere; indeed it
is wrung from me against the protest of my
• judgment and habit. But the fact that im-
presses me is that if the founders of the
Phonogram followed the usual professional
habit of starting a paper 44 to meet a de-
mand,” or 44 a long-felt want,” they need
~ t ‘ 37
prompting. 1 had considered myself gen-
cnerally well-informed, but the first number
of this monthly convinced me that 1 knew
very little more about the subject to which
it is devoted than a new-lx>m kitten compre-
hends of the higher mathematics. I learned
that the phonograph has l>een practically
applied to manifold forms of ever)- -day ser-
vice to every-day men; that it is creeping
close to myself in my own work-a-day life;
• that its uses interest the business man in the
same degree that they affect those who fol-
low a score of the professions, and that in
the family circle, by the bedside of the sick
and dying, on the plains and in the amuse-
ment halls it has assumed a place and value
such as must give it rank among the won-
ders of the century we are closing and of -
the age whose threshold we are but passing.
It was news to me that, in every forecast of
the future, I must consider the part the
phonograph is going to play, with a certain-
ty that it will hold an important place in
most phases of human action. Speech is
the most unique gift to man, and its mar-
velous mimic, the phonograph, is adding to
its usefulness and its importance in ways 1
had not dreamed of.
To descend from gravity for an instant, I
must confess that what I have read of the
wonders of the phonograph suggests to my
mind a train of terrors that may spring from
it. When the instrument is in as general
use as the pen and ink are, fancy what may
happen. Fancy the anguish of a hot-tem-
pered man who, when he explodes with
wrath over a torn buttonhole, or chides his
wife for giving his oldest, and therefore his
~ * ^
best-beloved, coat to the poor, is called
into her boudoir to hear the family phono-
graph reel off the very language, the very
voice he used when, in plighting his troth to
her, he swore by Dan Cupid that he would
never — or that he would forever — you under-
stand. According to the Phonogram,
sweethearts will have these instruments by
them, and they will treasure and use them
as wives. Fancy, too, the state of mind of
the wife of the. future when^her husband,
after rejecting her pancakes with contempt-
uous language, hies hiip to his phonograph
to read to her the recipe for buckwheat
cakes which his dying mother spoke into the
machine with her last brdath.
But to be serious: If the Phonogram
gives one person in ten as much pleasure or
knowledge as its first isaie gave me it will
indeed meet a long-felt wont, and all who
are concerned in popularising the invention
will have reason to bless the day that the
little messenger was started.'
A Phenomenal Feat In Reporting.
T h k fol lo wi ng f r< >m t he Commercial A </-
vertiser of January 20, is interesting, show-
ing as it does how great an aid the phono-
graph is to stenographic reporters. It may
not be generally known, but it is a fact that
the phonograph has been in use in l»oth
Houses of Congress for over two years, as
an auxiliary to the regular reporters.
The greatest feat of reporting that has
ever been performed by the official report-
ers of Congress was that of preparing ttle
Senate report for the Record Wednesday
night. The chief reporter is ill, and only
two men were available to do the work.
The Senate was in session for fourteen
hours, all of which time was spent in an
active discussion of the Silver Bill. It was
after 12 o’clock at night when they ad-
journed, and during the session they had
talked over 120,000 words. Two stenog-
raphers took the report and, by dictating
their notes into phonographs, for typewriters
to transcribe, they had all the copy ready
for the printers by S o’clock in the morning,
and the Record was on the desks of the
Senators when Congress convened.
— ■ - • ♦ • — -
The Manufacture of Musical Cylinders.
EING requested by the man-
ager of one of the local
companies to give some
points on the making of
musical records, we cheer-
fully comply. In order to
be able to do so, we have carefully in-
vestigated the subject, and find that there
are no new features in this business, ex-
cepting those which Mr. Edison has de-
veloj>ed, and which he proposes to put into
practical use at some future time. He has
been experimenting for a long time in this
direction, and can now make musical and
other records such as orations, Jectures,
et^., far superior to anything that has ever*
heretofore been produced. In order, how-
ever, to prepare for doing this business
properly, it will be necessary to invest a
large sum of money in a plant, which would
not l>e justified by the present condition of
the musical-record business, owing to the
fact that so many of the local companies
are trying to make these records for them-
selves; this being the case, the parent com-
pany does not see its way clear to take ad-
vantage of the improvements Mr. Edison
has made, but we are told that if the local
companies should unite in a request to the
ixirent company to do so, and would agree
to desist from the manufacture of the same
themselves, arrangements would be speedily
made for the establishment of a manufac-
tory of such records under Mr. Edison's
personal direction, and we have little doubt
but that perfection of quality together with
cheapness of production would soon be
reached. Until that is done, however, we
cannot see any encouragement for improve-
ments in this line.
44 Stage Fright” Produced by the Phonograph.
HE first appearance of an
actor, or singer before
the phonograph is a study
by itself, and well worth
r the observation of a
- student of human na-
ture. It would natu-
rally be supposed that these people, who
pass their lives in the glare of publicity,
wojjld approach the machine with the same
sang froid and self-possession which char-
acterizes them on the stage, and, in most
cases, this is a fact. But some of the most
collected of them when before an audience,
become victims of “stage fright" before
Che phonograph, and when they succumb to
.this it is most difficult to secure a good rec-
orclT- Scores of actors and actresses have
stood before the large horns attached to
phonographs, who never felt the slightest
qm^er when facing an audience, but who.
when subjected to this ordeal, have become
like bashful ^schoolboys forced by a stem
master to “ speak their first piece" on a
The collection referred to above includes
O'oice phonographs of actors and actresses,
ranging from such men as Jefferson and
Florence to the smaller artists of the variety
stage. In the cas£ of Jefferson and
Florence the collector took his phonograph
to the dressing-room of Mr. Jefferson dur-
ing an engagement at Palmer’s. The
veteran actor 'listened to the reproduc-
tions of some songs and recitations, half-
clad in the costume of Dr. Pangloss, and
painting his face to the proper make-up the
while. Mr. Florence stepped into the room
and listened, too, and lx>th finally consented
to give a portion of the scene from “ The
Rivals," in which Sir Lucius O’Trigger is
arranging with Bob Acres the details of the
proposed duel. There was not the slightest
evidence of “stage fright" exhibited by
these two finished artists. They were as
easy and natural, as they stood before the
big-mouthed horn, as they are upon the
stage. Mr. Florence began with the snatch
of song, 11 For He loved a Bold Dragoon,"
and the two men fastened their dialogue
upon the cylinder until Jefferson ended with
the speech, “You oughtn’t tb talk to a man
like that, at a time like this, to a man like
that.” The peculiar high voice of Jefferson
and the rich brogue of Florence were all ac-
curately recorded, and can now be produced
at will by the owner of the cylinder. Jef-
ferson and Florence may be thousands of
miles away, but their voices are held firmly
here in New York, and their little bit of ex-
quisitely funny dialogue from “ The Rivals "
can be repeated at any time with as much
effect as though the two noted actors were
present to recite it.
The Tariff on Phonographs.
Congress and the custom-house officers
are threatened with a new tariff difficulty in
the shape of the phonograph. And it is
easy to see that so remarkable an invention
must have a material influence on the com-
mercial relations of men. Its peculiarity isf
that its value as a commodity will depend
entirely bn what it contains. A phono-
graph charged with the mongrel music
of an amateur would have no other value
than that of the wax and other material of
which the instrument was composed. But
stocked with a speech of Gladstone, Bis-
marck or the pope, or a song by Patti, of a
new opera by Verdi, it would have a large
cash value, and as such would seem to be
• within the field of taxable imports.
THE FOOTPRINTS OF SOUND.
BV FRANK M. DEEMS. M. D.. PH. V
CCOM PAN VING this ar-
tide is a picture of the
footprints of sound: in
this case, of articulate
speech. Does the
phrase seem a fanciful
one? If so, be assured that the picture
represents not only the footprints of sound,
but the shadows of an echo as well. In
other* words, it is a micro-photograph- of a
record — a phonogram taken from an Kd-
ison phonograph cylinder. For the benefit
of such readers as are not familiar with Mr.
Kdison's wonderful tone- recorder, let me
explain in detail, step by step, how this pic-
• Fio. i . 4
ture was produced. Hut before so doing I
will draw a parallel between the phorograph
and the human ear. I'p to a certain point
there is a striking similarity between the
mechanical construction of the phonograph
and the structure of the human car. This
will be better shown bv a reference to the
acc unpanying diagram of the ear (Fig. i).
The outer ear is funnel-shaped; it is, in
fact, a natural hearing - trumpet. '1 his
serves the purpose of collecting the vibra-
tions of the atmosphere which constitute
sound, condensing and conducting it. In
the phonograph there i> a corresponding
funnel for the same purjxjstf. At the l»ot-
tom of the outer car • funnel there is a
membrane, a beautiful structure a little
thicker than gold-beaters’ skin. This is
the tympanum, or, as it is more commonly
called, the 44 drum of the ear.” At the l>ot-
tom of the phonograph speaking-tube! and
corresponding exactly to the ear-drum,
there is a small circular piece of thin micro-
scopic cover-glass called the diaphragm. In,
the car there is attached to the inner sur-
face of the ear-drum a movable chain of
three small tones, called the 44 hammer,”
the 44 anvil,” and the 44 stirrup,” from their
close resemblance to the objects above men-
tioned. These three little bones are so ar-
ranged and connected that we may regard
them, as a whole, as a compound lever auto-
matically operated by two small muscles.
This chain of l>oucs serves a double pur-
pose: it keeps the ear-drum gently on a
stretch, but delicately adjusting it to each
varying impulse with which the air comes
laden, tightening it so that it thrills to every
whisper, loosening it against the injurious
effects of sounds too loud. Hut they serve
a yet more important purpose : they receive
the vibrations from the ear-drum to which
they are attached, and convey them cross
the cavity of the inner ear to the nervous
expansionsof the auditory, or hearing nerve.
In the phonograph the part corresponding to
this chain of tones is called the stylus, or
engraving jien. It consist of a little hinged
lever cemented to the under surface of the
thin glass diaphragm. It is tipped with a
point of sapphire. This sapphire point, be-
ing exceedingly hard, never loses its shape
or polish by wearing away, or from corro-
sion. It is not necessary to go into the com-
plicated but wonderfully beautiful arrange-
ment of the auditory nerve: suffice it to snv,
that in the phonograph the wax cylinder
takes the place of the nerve and brain. So.
we see, there is really a close analogy bc-
tween the mechanism of the phonograph and
the anatomical structure of the ear. Now,
similarity of structure implies similarity of
function, and, up to a certain point, their
modus -operand^ their action is alike.
Sounds are made; in the case of hearing,
the funnel-like outer ear collects and con-
denses these atmospheric vibrations, and
they beat against the stretched membrane
of the ear-drum, and it vibrates ; as it does
so it sets the movable chain of l>ones at-
tached to it into similar vibrations, and
they pass these vibrations on to the ex-
panded portion of the auditory nerve,
where they are registered as sensations, and
these sensations being transmitted to the
Fig. 2 .
brain, axe in some mysterious way trans-
lated into* conscious sound, which is hear-
ing. In the case’. of- the phonograph, the
speaking- funnel collects the atmospheric-
vibrations which constitute sound, and thev
_ ’ *
beat against the thin glass diaphragm, and
it vibrates 7 as it does so it sets the sap-
1 phire-pointed stylus attached to it into sim-
ilar vibrations, and this point engraves these
vibrations upon the surfaqf of a revolv-
ing wax cylinder, in the form of indentations
. more or less deep, according to the loudness
oi. the sound, and closer together or further
apart according to the pitch of the sound
and the rate of the movements of the cylin-
der. These indentations are what I have
ventured to call the footprints of sound.
Now, these minute spiral lines of indenta-
tions made by sound-waves can be photo-
graphed by using a microscope lens in the
camera, and that is called a micro-photo-
graph. Such a micro-photograph is the il-
lustration (Fig. 2 ) in this article, and which
I have ventured to call the shadows of an
echo. Of course, they can l>e almost in-
definitely enlarged, and each tiny footprint
of a sound could be made as large as a cart-
wheel, if that were of any use. Yes, the
phonograph is first an ear, and then a whole
vocal apparatus — larynx, throat, tongue and
all— and Thomas A. Edison is still the “Wiz-
ard of Llewellyn Park ”
A Memorial Heard Through a Phonograph.
A short time before Browning's death
Miss Ferguson, at the studio of Mr. Ru-
dolph Lehmann, succeeded in persuading
him to speak into a phonograph. The lines
he spoke into the instrument were a portion
of his own poem, “ How they brought the
good news from Ghent to Abe.” The in-
strument, not being human, which never lies
and never exaggerates or changes when it
repeats what has been told it, proved that
Browning spoke the first two lines,
*' I jumped in the saddle, and Joris and he;
" I galloped, Dick galloped, we galloped all
straight off; but when he came to the third
line there was a stumble, and presently came
the words, " I forget.” He tried to reir.em-
l>er the line, which every schoolboy through-
out the English-speaking world can repeat
without the slightest hesitation, but he
broke down again. The instrument repeat-
ed the apology he made for forgetting his
own poems, and the eulcgv he delivered on
Edison and what he termed his “wonderful
invention." Then there was a ]>ause, while
the cylinder continued to revolve, and pres-
ently came a loud “Robert Browning,” as *
if the poet had, with his own voice, signed
his name to the effort.
A NEW AUTOMATIC PHONOGRAPH.
T HE Automatic Phonograph Exhibition
Co., which controls the patents of the
« Nickel-in-the-Slot," is putting out a new
machine (as shown in our illustration) which
is a great improvement over the old one, of
which there were about 750 in use from
Maine to Montana.
lose the nickel, even if the instructions on
the card are not followed.
An important feature of the new machine
is that plugs, wads, buttons, etc., will not
work, and only an exact counterfeit of a
nickel in weight, and size will operate the
. The advantages of the new machine are
as follows: First, starting the machine with
a crank instead of the side push liar; with
this arrangement it is impossible for the
machine to get out of adjustment. The
second new feature introduced is that, in-
serting the nickel requires the playing of
the entire selection by the phonograph.
In the new machine electric current is not
started — that is, the connect ion is not made
until the last moment, and the battery pow-
er is never wasted. I: is also impossible to
I I •
The factory is now running night and day
to supply new machines in place of the old
style. The receipts show no |iereeptible
decrease or increase, but in some special
cases, favored by location, some machines
' pay as much as $24 in one day. The re-
ceipts increase or diminish in various ma-
chines, as the records, which arc changed
daily, are good or mediocre — like a*theatri-
cal production — “ a good show drawing a
full house,” and different localities require
“Ocean Telegraphy”; A. («. Bell, “Tele-
phone”; C. F. Brush, “ Arc Light^; T. A.
Edison, “ Incandescent Light "; Prof. Klihu
Tomson, “ Electric Welding”; Henry- M.
Whitney, “ Electric Railways.”
The French Tariff and Electricity
T'hk French Chamber of Electrical In-
dustries has adopted a report of its Com-
mittee on T ariff, recommending the advocacy
before the government of the following as
the minfma rates of duties on electrical ap-
paratus in the revision of the French Com-
mercial 'Treaties to g<r into effect after
February i, 1892. A n v*l
Dynamo electric machines weighing
more thairt 2 lbs 10 ^
Arc lamps, known as regulators. ... 10^
Cfayons for .arc lamps io<
Electric .'cables 5#
Inductors for dynamo machines 20$
Bobbins, full or not, made of metal,
covered with copper wike,insulated. 20#
Parts made of copper weighing less
than 1 kilogr.*(2.2 lb.), numbered
or marked, either set up or sep-
arate, intended for electric ma-
chines s. . r. 150 fr. per 220 lbs.
• • —
As important meeting of the members of
the National Elect yc Light Association will
be held at Providence, R. I., on ^February
17, 18, 10. This will l»e the thirteenth ses-
sion "bf this society, and an effort is being
made to have the following distinguished
men speak on their specialties: Dr. N’orvin
(ireen on “Telegraphy”; Cyrus W. Field,
Thermo-electric Piles and Generators
From the following facts a good idea may
be had of the relative values of thermo-elec-
tric piles and dynamos worked by gasometers
for the transmission of thermic energy con-
tained in gaslight into electric energy. All
the experiments made with the latter show
a consumption of over 3.051 cub. in. per
watt-hour, or, say 1,060 cu. feet j>er kilo-
watt-hour. A well -constructed gasometer
will consume from 21 to’24CU. ft. of gas
per horse-hour, and can yield 600 watts
available on a dynamo whose product does
not exceed 85 per cent., which under the
most favorable conditions equals 61 cu. in.
per watt-hour or 35.3 cu. ft. per kilowatt-
hour. Hence, for a given amount of elec-
tric energy a gow^thcrmo-electric pile will
consume about 30 times more gas than a
generator made up of a gasometer and a
dynamo. Moreover, there is no thermo-
electric pile on sale whose available power
exceeds 10 to 12 watts, whereas gasometers
are regularly made of 100 horse-hour.
BY FELIX DAHN. l‘H. D
No. i.— WILLIAM GILBERT
THU PHOXOGRA Jt
electricity before Gilbert’s time. The Greek
word for aml>er is elekfron , hence Gilbert
called its attractive property electricity. But
very little more was known of magnetism
than of electricity.
The ancients knew that in Magnesia in
Asia Minor there were certain black stones
which possessed the remarkable property pf
attracting to themselves bits of iron and
steel. They called them 44 magnets ” from the
name of the locality whence they came.
They found that •
piece of such a
stone, if suspend-
ed by a thread,
point north and
south. T h e y
called such bod-
(leading - stone).
'There we have
the whole sum
of the knowledge
that the ancients
•; dtv 1600 Gilbert
published his re-
in he showed
that other bod-
ies, some twenty
at least, jhjss^ss-
ed similar attrac-
tive power when
rutted, as did the amber of the ancients.
He called them electrics. But it was as
to magnets and magnetism that he made
his more valuable % and interesting inves-
tigations. 1 le discovered the polarity of nat-
ural magnets, and he called them “poles,"
and considered the laws of polarity. He
discussed the grouping of iron filings
about the poles of magnetic bars, and made
the distinction between magnets and mag-
netic bodies. He made all kinds of artifi-
cial magnets. Gilbert also propounded the
astonishing discover}* that the earth itself is
a. huge magnet; that its magnetic poles
coincide very nearly with its geographical
poles, and that, therefore, it causes the com-
pass needle (itself a little magnet), to place
itself when freely suspended, in a north and
south position. All these and many other
questions he treated by purely inductive and
experimental methods. And now we are
confronted by a surprising historical fact.
Jt has been said
that I.ord Bacon
was a contem-
porary of I >r.
w o u 1 d have
thought that he
would have hail-
ed with generous
delight such a
ample of the in-
But no. On the
contrary, in his
Nov urn Organ-
urn , he severely
work, singling it
out as a pecul-
iarly striking in-
stance of incon-
ing, and of truths
distorted by preconceived fancies. Else-
where he alludes to the “ electric energy
concerning which Gilbert has told us so many
fables." It has been well said, “ a century
and a half later, as we shall see, these 4 fab-
les ’assumed the form of realities. The
.sweeping censure »f so high an authority
seems to have produced its natural effect,
and may have had much to do in mater-
ially retarding the development of the in-
fant science.” But this was not the only
* instance of Lord Bacon’s failure to recog-
nize the best inductive labors of his own
time, for4nrr«jccted the Copernican theory
But science recognizes no boundary lines,
knows no provincial prejudices; and where
English Bacon failed to recognize a fellow-
• countryman’s merit, Italian Galileo said of
De Magnete and its writer, “ I extremely
admire and envy this author. I think him
worthy of the greatest praise for the many
new and true observations that he has made,
to the disgrace of so many vain and fabling
authors, who write not from their own
knowledge only, but repeat everything they
hear from the foolish vulgar, without at-
tempting to satisfy themselves of the same
by experience — perhaps that they may not
diminish the size of their books."
Posterity has reversed Lord Bacon’s un-
merited censure and confirmed Galileo’s
encomiums, and the fame of William Gil-
bert, like that of every true scientist, will
continue to grow brighter and brighter.
- — ■ — ■
Electricity in Place of Steam.
Thf. rossibility of electricity being usei|
as the inotive |>ower for railroads in thpi
future is assuming an interesting condition
Stations may be located some fort) 5 or fifty
miles apart, which will be run by large en-
gines, and from recent, tests it is found that
an electric motor will mount a grade of
more than fifty per cent. Not only on rail-
roads, but on the ocean steamers will a
new era be inaugurated when electricity is
introduced. The advantages lieing a saving
of expense, higher rate of speed, and the
danger of accidents decreased.
. • •
Lovers of statistics will find something
of interest in the fact that about ten million
incandescent electric lamps will be made in
-the United States during 1S91. They will
involve the use of 125,000 ounces of platin-
um, which costs :\t present §20 per ounce.
The Telegraph in War.
all we know to
the contrary, the
general of the
future will be a
quiet man at the
end of a tele-
graph wire. To
a certain extent
applied to Field-
Moltke. But it will be still truer of the
successful leader in the next European
war. A recent dispatch from London
says: “An elaborate system of war tel-
egraphing has been arranged between the
Admiralty Department and the Post Office.
Jt is now possible by this arrangement, upon
short notice, to connect every telegraph sta-
tion on the coast directly with the Admiral-
Quite a contrast betwen the old picture
of “ the Duke of Wellington riding about
amid fire and cannon balls,” and a military
leader who does his work sitting at a desk
in an office like a merchant, conning bulle-
tins from his various subordinates as they
come in on a “ticker," and dispatching or-
ders, not bv aides-de-catr.p, but by telc-
raphic dispatch, just as a speculator wires
is broker to “ buy ten September." There
s nothing dramatic about that way of con-
ducting a campaign. The picturesqueness
of poetry is knocked out of war, and it has
Income a grim business even in its super-
ficial aspects, as it always was in its under-
A New Device.
Thf. insumgraph is a new- device for
checking the time of arrivals of employees
at a factory or other premises, and unlike
those already in use, it cannot be deceived
except by forging the handwriting, for it
takes the signature of the employee.
AN ELASTIC ACCUMULATOR.
NOVEL DEVICES THAT ARE FACILITATING MAN’S WORK AND PROMOTING THE
A N elastic battery, just invented by Mr.
Emile Reynier, isdescril>ed hyL’Electri-
cun . It consists of sixteen elements set up
in pockets or flexible wallets. They are
placed flat against each other and tightly
compressed between two still backs that are
drawn toward each other by rubber springs.
A bridge-like frame made of hard wood,
p.nd covered with a preparation against
water, built over the middle of the appa-
ratus, serves as a handle, by means of which
the battery can be hung up or carried about
impress an ar-
it v on the ac-
the battery to
attain a high
degree of spe- „
and gjeat spe-
of the plates
or backs against the insulators and re-
ceivers secures these most important parts
against breakage and* shocks. Each couple
is corked with an elastic insulated stopple.
The following data ^re given by the in-
vent*^ for th£ -couple battery which he
cal I s chtpal-hturt ( horse - hour ) : Electro-
motive power, 32 volts ^ Discharge of avail-
aljle jxjtential, 28 volts; Intensity of th£ cur-
rent of discharge. 3 to 6 amperes; Normal
available- power, 150 watts; Voltaic cajxacity
alxuit 30 am peres-hour; Available energy
about 740 watts-hour. The exterior dimen-
sions are (over all): Length 0.40 metre;
Width 0.30; Height 0.30. Total bulk, with-
out the case, 36 cubic decimetres. Total
. . ' -47
weight, without the case, 50 kilograms;
Weight per kilowatt, 330 kilograms; Weight
per kiio watt-hour, 67 kilos; Volume per
kilowatt, 240 cubic decimetres; Volume per
kilowatt-hour, 49 do.
Mrs. Mary Lowell, best known as the
“ Electrical Star,” has turned her love for
electrical engineering to practical account.
Being without a servant, she determined to
try whether the kitchen fire could not l>e
lighted by means of a tame flash of elec-
tricity, so to
have it well
she got up her-
self. She pre-
pared wires to
and from her
l>ed— head to
rent with the
aid of a small
all that then
remained to be done was to so “build” the
fire that the materials should become easily
The wires were connected by a piece of
plat i nil m.and round this was loosely wrapped
what firework-makers call “ lighting paper."
Over this again was strewn some tissue
paper, upon it placed a wheel of firewood
and on the latter the coal.
At 7 in the morning, when the fire had to *
be lit, the electricity was turned on. The
platinum lit the lighting paper, then the
tissue, the tissue the firewood, and the fire-
wood the coal. On descending to the kitch-
en the kettle \\*as boiling and the place com-
A Remarkable Experiment in Phonographic and
Telephonic Transmission between New
York and Philadelphia.
This experiment was shown by Mr. Will-
iam J. Hammer in his lecture upon 44 Edi-
son and his Inventions,” delivered !>efore
the Franklin Institute, February 4, 1SS9.
It employed two Edison phonographs, two
Edison carlxrn telephones (transmitters),
two Edison motograph receivers or loud
speaking telephones, two induction coils,
two sets of batteries and -pne hundred
and three miles of long-dista
wire, six miles of which was
and underwater cable.
It will be observed that th £ sounds,
which consisted of talking, singing and
cornet playing, were transmitted through
the air five times, and were transmitted
through no less than thirteen mediums from
the speaker and musician in New York to
the audience in Philadelphia.
These mediums included vocal chords,
cornet, air, glass, iron and mica diaphragms,
carlion buttons, stylus of steel, palladium-
faced peris, hydrogen gas (evolved between
pen and surface of chalk), wax and chalk
cylinders and copper wire.
The physical conditions of the sound-
waves were changed no less than twenty-
one times in transmission, as follows: (1)
Air waves produced by vibration of vocal
chords in speakers throat or by the cornet
(2) Vibrations of a diaphragm. (3) Un-
dulations in wax. (4) Vibrations of a dia-
phragm. (5) Varying pressures in a carbon
button. (6) A pulsating electric current.
(7) An undulating magnetic*fqrce. (8) Al-
ternating electric currents. (9) a varying
force of adhesion. (10) Vibrations of a
diaphragm. (11) Sound-waves. (12) Vi-
brations of a diaphragm. (13) Undulations
in wax. (14) Vibrations of a diaphragm.
(15) Varying pressures in a carbon button.
(16) A pulsating electric current (17) An
undulating magnetic force. (iS) Alter-
nating electric currents. (19) A varying
force of adhesion. (20) Vibrations of a
diaphragm. (21) Sound-waves translated
into words by the auditory nerves of the
The experiment shows three of Mr. Edi-
son’s remarkable inventions working in
juxtaposition; /*. e. his carbon transmitter,
his motograph receiver and his phonograph.
It is also interesting to note that at the
time of the a bovo- mentioned lecture, that
by means of transmitters placed upon the
stage, the lecture was listened to by people
in some fourteen different places. Music
and talking were transmitted by the Phono-
graph over the telephone to Buffalo, Roches-
ter, Boston, Syracuse, New York, Orange
and elsewhere, from the Franklin Institute
stage, through the courtesy of the Long
Distance Telephone Company, of New
York, who kindly placed their lines at Mr.
Hammer's disposal for these original ex-
In addition to the above experiments Mr.
Hammer conducted some of a somewhat
similar nature during the Paris Exposition,
at the residence of M. Louis Rau, the oc-
casion l>eir.g an informal gathering of the
electrical section of the jury, of which M.
Rau was a member, his handsome residence
which is lit with the incandescent light, and
is connected with the Opera by telephone,
was, upon the occasion referred to also, put
in connection with the Edison Phonograph
upstairs, where it was recorded, after which
it was retransmitted downstairs, and record-
ed again upon the last half, of the cylinder
it originally started from. The experiment
was successful although the final repro-
duction was very faint owing to the hasty
arrangements. • Another very interesting
experiment whicli was carried out while
at Paris, which opens up another new field
for the phonographs, was the sending off
phonograms attached to |>arachutcs from a
Pavilion in the Palais des Machines, and by
means of phonographs talking, singing;
bugle-calls, etc., were transmitted across the
city through the telephones, and were plain-
ly audible all over the room.
An interesting experiment was shown in
which pinging, talking, and other sounds
made upon one -half of a cylinder of a
pltbft6£*nplr "'situated in the parlor was sent
through^ a telephone line to a phonograph
balloon during a trip made by him of over
100 miles from Paris. As the result of his
experiments, Mr. Hammer feels certain
that this method of sending dispatches from
lalloons in time of war is very feasible, and
presents points of utility and value superior
to the carrier-pigeon service. He found
by properly proportioning and weighting the
jiarachutes they could be dropped with con-
THE TELEPHONE IN PARIS.
NTIL within the last year
the'price of public service
has been 1,200 francs; it
“ is now 600 francs. For-
merly subscribers had to
go to headquarters to
pay; at the present time
their bills wfll be collected ^t their own of-
fices for an additional charge of 25 cen-
times. On Octol>er 1, 1SS9, there were
6.30b subscribers; in a year there were
7,Soo. The disturbances in the lines were
2,000 a month; of these only 55 or 60 were
in the subways, or about a.75 per hundred
subscribers. In 1887-88 more interruptions
occurred, because the lines had been already
seven or eight years in use. and were very
defective; but at the beginning of 18S9 the
cables were repaired, and all the defective
parts removed. The Department is now
about to inaugurate a large number of cables
of 7 double conductors each, so as to con-
nect several offices with each other, and thus
shorten the time of communication, which is
still pretty long. The night tariff has also
l)een revised, and is now 30 centimes for or-
dinary conversation, and 20 centimes to sub-
scribers per 1 00 kilometres or about 1 60 miles.
The First Typewriter
preparing copy for the printer, is becoming
almost universal — in? fact, the United Press
Association, and many of the syndicates
which furnish a large amount of matter for
publication, refuse to receive “copy ” unless
transcribed by the typewriter. The saving of
time both to the writer of the MSS., and the
facility with which it may be examined, and
set up in type, is a very important matter to
the publisher, while the chances of its ac-
ceptance are increased.
\ MODEL of the first writing machine made
exhibited a short time
since. It was patented in 1S43 by a man
named Charles Thurber, yf Massachusetts,
and is a really amusing affair in its very clum-
siness. It consists of a wheel al>out a foot in
diameter which turns horizontally upon a
central pivot; the rim of the wheel is bored
with twenty-five holes. in each one of which
is a rod bearing at the top a glass letter and
at the bottom a similar letter of steel. The
paper sheet is so arranged that the line to be
printed is under the nyn of this wheel, and
the letter wanted is rswung into place by
turning the wheel ; \Vhyi in place, a rod
bearing it is depressed uiitil the steel letter
or type touches the paper. I should say
that even the fastest operator could not
write more than half as fast as a man with
a pen. Vet it was a writing machine, and
Thurber succeeded in getting people to in-
vest §15,000 in this curious device. At
present there are no less than forty-seven
dilferent kinds of typewriters made and
sold in this country, and in New York City
alone there are said to be more than 3.000
expert operators, making a living by type- “You have no idea of the number of type-
writing. writing machines stolen from the offices of
* ^ * ” professional men,” said a prominent busi-
W mi most of the newspapers and maga- - ness-man. “ Only a day or two ago I had
zincs the use of the typewriting machine for a funny case reported to me. A prominent
If there were as many phonographs in
existence as there are typewriting machines
at the present moment, the correspondence
of thousands of people would be effected by
the transmission of their own voices in the
place of their own handwriting.
When the thirty or forty companies al-
ready organized apply their energies to the
introduction of the phonograph, so that it
shall be as common in the household as the
writing machine, its usefulness will l>ecome
epidemic, and where one instrument is found
at the present lime, a thousand will be found
lawyer — a judge — and his typewriter, the
one who operates the machine, went out to
lunch, and left the office unprotected. After
a nice, appetizing lunch the young clerk re-
turned to the office, and was filled with con-
sternation to find his writing-machine gone.
With breathless ha*te he rushed out to tell
his principal, and they hurried back as fast
as possible. But irpagine the clerk’s sur-
prise when he discovered that during his
second absence the thief had returned, and
taken the handsome cabinet desk away. The
loss was immediately reported to me, and as
we keep a record of the number of every ma-
chine sold, we soon traced the thief, and got
the machine and the desk. Never a week
passes but some one rejwrts the loss of a
machine, with a request that a lookout l>e
kept by our men, who are always on the go,
and know every machine in the districts
which they cover. It is not an easy matter
to steal a machine and escape detection if
•the thief remains with it in the city. Some
time repairs will be needed, and the num-
ber will expose the criminal. My experi-
ence is # that of every other big type'.*riter
company in the city.”
^ Thk possibilities of the typewriter are
significantly illustrated in two ways: First,
a deaf-dumb-and-blind young man, now in
one of the New York institutions, is enabled
. to communicate with the outside world with
as muqh freedom as if he could see like the
rest of tts. The subject of dictation or con-
• versatiun is communicated by touches on
the back of his hand. A simple device an-
nounces to the writer when the end of the
line has l>een reached. The second great
way in which the typewriter has been em-
ployed is connecting its key with a battery
and printing it^ matter mites away. In
a little while we shall have a typewriter
more perfect than any other which does
the work in shorthand. The wonders
of mechanism seem only to just have
OW the Pho-
most leads ^the
in a measure, he
words are coming
out of his mouth.
of reporting is
swifter than ste-
is no question
that rapid speaking may l»e more faithfully
reported by the phonograph than by the
shorthand method. Newspapers in the fu-
ture will use the phonograph -man a great
deal where they now use the shorthand-man.
The cylinders need not necessarily be writ-
ten off to make copy for the compositor. The
reporters may l>e sent direct to the com|X)s-
ing-room. Just think what this means in
cases where time is short and presses are
A typewriting machine will shortly
l>c introduced to the public which combines
new features of importance not found in any
other machine. This machine, which is now
l>eing extensively used in London and Paris,
will be called the Bar-lock, and in our next
issue a full description of it will be given.
A new typewriting machine has been in-
vented, making letters which the blind can •
understand. It is made under the “ point M
system, and has many improvements in the
construction and arrangement of parts in the
carriage, feeding, spacing, and embossing
mechanism. It is the invention of a Texan
Another new machine, also the invention
of a Texan, consists of a keyboard carnage
pivoted oqa threaded shaft: in a light frame
an inking apparatus and mechanism moves
the carriage along the shaft. This machine
is small enough to be carried in the pocket.
* Mr. Edison hinted at some experiments which
* he breads to make to determine, if possible, if
certain insects emit sounds which are inaudible to
the human car because of the rapidity of the vi-
brations of the sound waves. He will place them
in the diaphragm for a few moments with the
phonograph revolving at a very high speed, and
then, with a greatly reduced speed, endeavor to
reproduce any sound that may be recorded.
The Automatic Phonograph Exhibition Com-
pany obtained a temporary injunction on the
N. A. P. Co., the 13th of December. 1S90, re-
straining the latter company from selling phono-
graphs, without restricting their use in connection
with a nickel-in-the-slot device. % The case was
argued in the U. S. Circuit Court before Judge
Lacombc, and on the 21st inst. lie handed down
his decision continuing the injunction, but ex-
pressly reserving the graphophone.
• There has been much rumor about a new ma-
chine — but we know for a fact that while such a
thing is in contemplation, yet it will be some timc~
before it will be ready for the market, as it will
have to be submitted to thorough trial to prove
its superiority over existing types ami then the
making of special tools, etc., all takes time.
Mr. AfCUST X. S.\)iry»X, General Manager of
the New England Phonograph Co., visited the’eity
last week, and reports business booming in the
New England States. They have placed over
fifty automatic machines, anti are reaping a har-
vest. daily in the country towns. Mr. S.uip-
son lias had large experience in thg phonograph
business mid is rapidly developing a large trN*Jc
in the Eastern States.
Mk. V. A. Ashcroft has charge of the exhibit
lion department of the .New England Phonograph
Co. He exhibited the phonograph at Melrose,
Mass., before a very large audience, and was
highly congratulated on the success of the affair.
Another exhibition was given in the Hawes Street
Ciiitarian Church, which was repeated four times
A new Phonograph Company.— T he Arkansas
Edison Phonograph Company have filed arti-
cles entitling them to the right to manufacture,
purchase, lease or otherwise obtain the Edison
Phonograph, and to lease or sell State rights of
the invention in this State. The capital stork is
^10.000. subscribed by X. Kupfcrle.W. G. Brown,
andll. G. Allis. This firm has fitted up comfort-
able quarters on the first fl«H>r of the Allis Block.
Mr.' Brown has charge of the business.
The many friends and the electric trade gener-
ally will be glad to learn that Mr. A. O. Tate,
secretary to Mr. Edison, is rapidly recovering
from his recent illness.
Tllk Texas Phonograph Co. control a nickel-in-
the-slot device which will soon be put on the
The Missouri Phonograph Co. have opened
several new offices in different parts of their terri-
tory and sav. they feel very much encouraged over
the phonograph prospects.
The cutting needle and knife and the reproduc-
ing needle arc now made of sapphire or diamond.
A single diaphragm of glass is used, that being
found the most satisfactory, although diaphragms
of iron, steel, aluminium and other sul>stanccs
answer well. The phonograph has been greatly
simplified, and is rendered very sensitive indeli-
cate sounds, bv the new sapphire needles and the
new cylinders. The machine i« geared so that the
cylinder will hold a long dictation.
In the /’«*. ktt . 1 lagaziiu of la 18 is written an
article purporting to look forward 500 years, ami
giving among a list ol inventions then to lie com-
pleted “ a machine to imitate the human voice
which will be worked by machinery in the manner
of a barrel organ. It will be called the vocal in-
strument. ami will be used in the churches to read
prayers." We have not waited the 500 years, but
the plftmograph is perfected, ami though it has not
been used to read prayers in churches, it fre-
quently reproduces sermons of notoriety- loving
At Budapesth a phonograph is now exhibited
from which the voice of Louis Kossuth can be
heard on payment of an entrance fee. The voice
of the venerable revolutionist is described as still
sonorous in spite of his great age.
At the late meeting of the Metropolitan Stenog-
rapher's Association held at the Club House.
No. 95 I^xington Avc.. on January S, the utility
and case with which the phonograph could be
used was clearly demonstrated by an exhibition
given by Miss M. E. Finley, of New York City,
who in a severe test, rapidly ami accurately trans-
crilicd on the Smith Premier Typewriter a diffi-
cult article on physiology, dictated to the phono-
graph. This nfcchine combines three features
not found in other typewriters: Fir>t. the case
with which the work is examined: second, the
type-cleaning brush, by which the characters arc
rapidly cleaned; third, the locking of the keys at
the end of the line, thereby preventing the doub-
ling of letters and unsightly errors.
The Meisterschaft System Taught by the
. Thm Columbia PMOSOGBArH Co.
or Mabylakd, Drlawa * r. a*d rttr .
DOTBICT or CoiX'MBlA.
627 E St.. N. \V., Washington, D. C..
January 19, 1891.
• • -
To the Editor 0/ The Phonogram:
You deserve congratulation. The first
issue shows peculiar, phonographic intelli-
gence and enterprise. We have sent copies
to all of our subscribers. .
The local companies should profit by
your editorial warning* not to lose sight of
the commercial field while operating coin-
slot phonographs. The coin-slot branch
should be carefully managed; only the best
records put on machines, which should al-
ways be in j>erfect order. Nevertheless,
managers should not forget that the prac-
tical office and home use of the phono-
graph can onl\^be developed by untiring
effort, and is the permanent part of the
Our latest new work in Washington is
language-teaching. I)r. Richard S. Rosen-
thal, the well-known author of the Mcister-
schaft system* has come here to work with
rtw- ColugifciA^Company. He has already
given two free lectures on the subject, at
one of which phonographs with language
lessons upon them were shown. A number
of students are'aiready engaged in this, the
ideal way of mastering ay foreign language.
Pupils are furnished with^ooks and pre-
. pared cylinders tt> match. The method of
study is to train eye and ear at the same
time. A jmpil wi^h his lesson on the cylin-
der can, byhearing it over and over again,
master ! e pronunciation perfectly: while
his eye*at the same^imc follows the printed
text and he learns how the words ^ 00 k and
person who has a phonograph, we
furnish a set of liooks with cylinders to
match, (about fifty) covering a year’s course
for $50.00. Classes of not less than ten are
equipped with a phonograph for a year, ten
sets of books and one set of cylinders with
ten-way hearing-tube, for $30.00 each.
'Phis use of the phonograph has been
presented in literature for a long time, but
has not l>eforc l>een taken up practically
The demands on our musical department
are so great that we are constantly enlarg-
ing it. As this is the only company having
access to the President’s band, we are kept
very busy filling orders which come from
all parts of the country.
Our commercial business is making rapid
gains. Since your last issue we have in-
creased the numlier of machines in the
United States Senate, the Census Office and
the National Museum, while the private list
has been largely augmented.,
I enclose clipping from the Evening Star
of January 17, relative to the use of the
phonograph in armories for drilling pur-
poses. Experiments are also l>eing made
with a view to the use of the machine in
connection with calisthenics.
We have many applications for the pur-
chase outright of machines, and believe the
selling policy will help materially.
Our Baltimore office is full of business,
and reports constantly increasing interest in
the phonograph for the office ami the home.
We have b**gun language-teaching there also.
Edward D. Easton,
The Phonograph Abroad.
The Automatic Phonograph is proving profit-
able to those interested io this application of (he
invention. The effort to push the instrument in
South America was. at last accounts, far from
successful. Now ami then, some one has a story
to tcfl illustrating the curious properties of the
instrument. One large importing house has a
phonograph that speaks half a dozen languages.
It is whispered that a large concern interested in
the manufacture of the instruments took to using
them in the place of stenographers only after some
one had pointed out the inconsistency of any other
.* * * In many of ihe batteries in use at the
present time the high internal resistance causes ex-
penditure of current; local action , resulting in the
waste of material and curtailment of the life of
the cell; and polarization which reduces the E.
M. F. to such an extent as to render these bat-
teries incapable of furnishing sufficient current to
do the work, especially if kept on closed circuit
for any length of time.
In producing a perfect galvanic cell, the aim is
to secure low internal resistance and constancy of
E. M. F. (or in other words absence of local ac-
tion and polarization). The Edison- Lalande Battery
has a type of galvanic cell which meets all re-
quirements. and is suited to every class of work.
The Edison- Islamic cell is a modification^or
rather a development of the battery invented some
years ago by Messrs. De Islamic & Chaperon.
The Lalande-Chaperon cell attracted considerable
attention at the time of its appearance, on account
of its comparative simplicity, its low internal re-
sistance and constancy of action. In the Edison -
Lalandc the loss by local action is less than one-
half of one per cent., and the internal resistance
of the 300 ampere-hour cell is only .o*y of an
ohm. When we come to consider that the major-
ity of lotteries now in use have an internal resist-
ance varying from 1 to 5 ohms, the great gain in
this respect is at once apparent, it being obvious
that the internal resistance of the Edison- La lan tie
cell is forty times less than that of its competitor.
* * * With the increase of type-writing
machines the New York Carbon and Transfer
Paper Co. have kept pace with the demand for
Carbon Papers and Ribbons of a fine grade and
quality, and have also established agencies in the
principal cities of the United States and Canada.
The goods manufactured ami sold are guifanteed
toJbc equal to any in the market RyAfons of
cCTra length, and all supplies for the typewriter
may be obtained at the shortest notice. * * *
In this department vc give short reviews of
such Xero Books as publishers may send us. We
invite publishers to favor us with their recent
publications, especially such as are related to
Electricity theoretical or applied.
A Dictionary of Electrical Words, Terms, and
Phrases, by Edwin J. Houston. A. M.; 656 pages,
397 illustrations; cloth binding. Price, postage
prepaid to any part of the world, $2.50. The W.
J. Johnston Co., Ld., Times Building. New York.
It rarely happens that ademand is so entirely and
satisfactorily supplied, as is the case by the timely
issue of Prof. Houston's Electrical Dictionary.
It is a book that ought to find a place on the refer-
ence shelf of every professional man, wlether he
be lawyer, editor, physician, teacher, or simply a
person of general culture. The applications ol
electricity have become so widespread, and arc
being so rapidly extended into every department
of daily life, that in order to understand the con-
stant allusions of the daily and periodical press to
these conditions, such a book of reference is a
necessity. The literary part is clear and concise,
while the illustrations leave nothing to be desired.
In a word, it has no rival.
* * * Among the many -houses in thisjbity
engagc<| in the business of reproducing by electri-
city and photography plates for printing purposes,
is the " Art -Photo Etching Co.," located in the
Raub Building, corner Fulton and Nassau Sts.,
this city, of which Messrs. Ladd & Sheldon arc
the active partners. This company is rapidly
coming to the front, and has a reputation for fur-
nishing fine work at very reasonable rates. * * *
# * * We are reaching a period in the de-
velopment of electricity when every fact devel-
oped and every thought contributed for publica-
tion is awaited with the keenest interest.
The newspapers of the day arc coming to recog-
nize the wonderful changes resulting from dis-
covery and invention in the arts ami sciences, so
that they freely give entire departments to this
In order, however, to obtain a consensus
of that which is most important, we cannot do
'better than recommend to our readers the Elec-
trical World. * * *
Tiif. A. B. C of Electricity is a practical hand-
book of value to all interested in the applica-
tion of Electrical work. It combines in small
space special information on the different branches
of the science, ami is endorsed by Mr. Thomas
A. Edison. Published by -the J. W. Lovell Co.
We call the attention of our readers that we
have made a special arrangement with the Cosmo-
politan Magazine, by which they can obtain both
the Phonogram ami the Cosmopolitan for $2.40, the
price of the larger magazine alone. To any one
forwarding their name and address before January
I, 1892, to this office, sample copies will be sent.
Ik those who have in contemplation the intro-
duction of " Electrical Appliances " would consult
an experienced man who is fully informed as to
the many systems and apparatus now in use in
connection with the telegraph, the telephone, the
arc and incandescent electric light, the messenger
call, fire alarm, etc., much time and money would
be saved. So rapidly have new ideas been de-
veloped. that it is an utter impossibility (without
giving much time ami thought to the subject), to
decide without the aid of an expert. Such a man
is Mr. William J. Hammer, of Temple Court,
New York, who had charge of the Edison Display
at the Paris Exposition, and who has published a
handsomely illustrated l>ook, which gives an idea
of the scope ami beauty of the exhibit. Mr.
Hammer has had a very large experience as con-
sulting and supervising engineer, ami the special
endorsement of him by Mr. Thomas A. Edison,
sustains his reputation, and the high opinion in
which his judgment on electrical matters is re-
garded By the press and many prominent electri-
WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY.
TESTIMONIAL LETTERS FROM OFFICERS OF THE PHONOGRAPH COMPANIES OF
. THE UNITED STATES.
IN ORDER TO SHOW THE CHARACTER OF THE WELCOME ACCORDED Yo “THE PHONOGRAM.’
WE PRESENT THE FOLLOWING EXTRACTS FROM SOME OF THE MANY HUNDRED
LETTERS RECEIVED SINCE THE ISSUE OF THE FIRST NUMBER.
From Laboratory of Thomas A. Edison.
Orangk. N. J., January 2, 1891.
I have received the first number o^The Phono,
gram, which you kindly sent to me. and 1 am very
much pleased with it. From both a literary and
typographical point of view the magazine is ex-
cellent, and you have my best wishes for its fu-
ture success. Mr. Edison wishes five copies sent
Yours very truly.
A. O. Tate.
Private Secretary to Thomas A. Edison.
New York, January 19, 1S91.
I have read the magazine, and was very much
pleased with it. I think it will be a great success.
• *Very truly.
T. R. Lombard.
Vice- Pres' t of N. A. Phonograph Co.
New York. December 8. 1890.
. I wish ygar paper. The Phonogram, the great-
est success. Yours very truly,
Robert G. Ingersoll.
* . • .
4 - m Np.w York, December 28, 1890.
It is with pleasure I acknowledge the receipt of
The Phqnqgram this morning. I have looked it
over, or. shall Lsay, ground out the cylinder. The
publication is very spicy, popularly scientific, etc.
Very truly yours,
A. D. Vance.
American Telephone Co.
Buffalo, N. Y., Jan. 21. 1591.
We are^all mucl^>ica*ed with the paper here in
\hc office, afid will be glad to see the next num-
ber. Yours truly.
If. D. PlLSlFER.
Sew York Phonograph Co.
St. Louis, January 9, 1891.
W aYe’ certainly very highly pleased with the
general make-up of The Phonogram, and we wish
you to send one hundred more copies of the next
isftkc. Very truly yours,
1 . C. Wood.
Gen. Manager of Missouri Phonograph Co.
Jacksonville. Fla., January 3, 1891.
I was much pleased with the first copy of The
Phonogram, and feel certain that it will be of im-
mense advantage to the phonograph interests.
I will do all I can for the success of the mag-
T. F. Gaines.
Supt. of Florida Phonograph Co.
Pittsburgh, Pa., January 19. 1891.
We think The Phonogram is a good idea, and
are desirous of seeing it succeed; and will do
everything in our power to help it along.
Henry F. Gilg,
:'y of Western Penn. Phonograph Co.
Boston. January 6, 1891.
We shall certainlv look with pleasure to the
publication of The Phonogram, and read it with
interest. Yours truly.
Aug. N. Sampson.
Gen. Manager of New England Phonograph Co.
Galveston. Texas. January 2, 1891.
We have received The Phonogram, ami beg
leave to congratulate you upon its appearance.
We think it will prove very useful in our work.
Business Mgr. of Texas Phonograph Co.
• New York. January 5, 1891.
I shall be happy to do all in my power to ad-
vance the interests of The Phonogram.
Yours very truly.
Richard T. Haines.
Scc'y N. Y. Phonograph Co.
Atlanta. Ga.. January 17, 1891.
The general idea of your Phonogram is excel-
lent. and we believe it should have the hearty and
unanimous support of all the Phonograph compa-
nies throughout the United States, and should re-
ceive encouragement from all who are interested
in the phonograph in any way.
F. E. Clarkson,
, Supt. of Georgia Phonograph Co.
VOICED BY THE PRACTICAL MEN OF AMERICA.
After These Who Can Doubt?
v * * *
Mr. Jesse Lippjncott — My Dear Friend: The Carriage Monthly,
I am glad to say to you that I have practically Ware Bros., Publishers.
tested the application of the phonograph to the 1113 Market St., P. O. Box 2769.
linotype, and conceive that it will be an important Philadelphia, April 4th, 1S90.
combination. I can think of nothing more enter- Eastern Pennsylvania Phonograph Co.,Phila.
prising than to see a reporter rushing in suddenly Dear Sirs ;
with a very important item at the last minute be- We noto we have been using the Edison phono-
fore the paper goes to press, telling the story of graph one month to-day; that during this period
thi* phonograph, and having it immediately trans- the writer dictated to one instrument eleven hun-
ferred to type a great deal quicker than he could dred and sixty-eight (1168) letters, all of which
think of writing it, much less having it composed, were transcribed correctly by the lady typewriter
justified, proved and made ready for the j$ress. from the second machine in her charge.
It is a new. day that dawns for the phonograph, The success we have had with our first month's
for typography and for the world at large. service with the phonograph is conclusive lojis,
Erastus Wiman. for our business, it is proving most satisfactory.
St. Louis, Jan. 5, 1891.
The Missouri Phonograph Co., St. Louis, Mo.
Herewith I inclose my check in payment of bill
for rent of battery for second quarter ending
March 31st, 1 89 1.
The best recommendation that I can give the
phonograph is to say to you that I want another
of them to assist me in getting Through with my
work. I will therefore ask you to deliver me an-
other complete outfit similar to the one which I
have. Bring it to my house.
I shall want at least five dozen cylinders with
the machine, and table; also soyic cases of which
we will give you information when you call.
Yours very truly, Seymour D. Thompson.
House of Representatives,
Washington. D. C., Oct. 1, 1890.
Mr. t. D. Easton, President of Columbia Pho-
Dear Sir ; . •
The session of Congress now kejAg over, I wish
to return my graphophone, rental from your
company the latter part of last November. In
doing so I wish to say that I have found this ma-
chine of much value indisposing of ml large cor-
respondence; that my clerk, who is npt a stenog-
rapher. but uses the typewriter, transcribes my
dictation accurately and readily; aniK that from
point of convenience and time and money-sav-
ing. the new method is a decided improvement
over the shorthand amanuensis in many respects.
On my return to Washington at the beginning
of the next session I hope to again use the ma-
chine. Yours truly, J. A. Pickler.
W. M. McCormick,
Wholesale White Pine & Hemlock Lumber.
Girard Building, Broad and Chestnut Sts.,
Philadelphia, April 22, 1S90.
Eastern Pf.nna. Phonograph Co.
I have used your phonograph since June ist.and
it gives it entire satisfaction. It answers every
purpose of a stenographer, and I have every rea-
son to believe that it will come into general use in
business offices. Yours.truly,
W. M. McCormick.
by TI01 A.
A nimple. practical, and economical manifolding device for
It makes 3,000 copies of one original Writing. Drawing. Music,
etc. 1,500 copies of one original Typewriter Letter. Recommended
by over 4*0,000 users Send fur circular and sample of work. «
A. B. DICK COMPANY,
32 Liberty Street, NEW YORK. 152 - 154 Like Street, CHICAGO.
117 South 5th Street, PHILADELPHIA.
For Electrical Purposes,
SILK FOR Ilf SUL AXIS O
ALL M W BRAIDING SOI,
WILLI AH R7LR &C0..54 Howard St., Ntv York City.
SAVE EVERY BUSINESS
AND PROFESSION, labor and
money, by keeping account of
*h transaction for future
10 Spruce St., If. Y.
Labor Saving Books for every
Business or Profession on hand
or made to order.
SUPPLIED ALL SHAPES.
CHAS. S. PLATT,
29 and 31 Cold 8t. ( N. Y.
$2.40 + $1.00 = $2.40.
But it's all right . No error in our arithmetic . We explain
above problem l hits: THE COSMOPOLITAN MAC A-
ZINE costs $2.40 a year ; THE PHONOGRAM costs
•-$1.00; the two together would ordinarily cost $3.40. II c
will send both publications , however — and they arc the very
best of their high class — for a whole year for the price of
the magazine alone — $2.40. You will never get a like oppor-
' /unity again. It's a chance to be caught before it flics away
with time. You know all about THE PHONOGRAM \
and if you re not familiar with THE COSMOPOLITAN \
send to the publishers for a free sample copy , addressing
THE COSMOPOLITAN MAGAZINE, Madison Square.
• New York City.
THE PHONOGRAM will be sent to one address and
THE COSMOPOLITAN to another if you like. Send
*all ordersfl 4
^ THE PHONOGRAM,
ROOM 127, PULITZER BUILDING, NEW YORK.
BOTH FOR $2.40 A YEAR.
MUSIC PLAYED AT THE WHITE HOUSE
BY THE PRESIDENT'S BAND. •
The best pieces (about ioo different
selections) played by the WORLD-RE-
nownkd U. S; Marine Band kept
constantly in stock.
Wonderfully effective Artistic
Whistling with piano accompaniment.
The LOUDEST, CLEAREST, and MOST
distinct V-OCAL QUARTETTES,
CLARIONET and piano, CORNET
and piano, VOCAL and piano, and VO-
CAL and ORCHESTRA ever offered.
Unique auction sales of all kinds
“Your music is the best we know .*’ — Texas Pho-
•‘The finest musical effects wiThavc ever listened
to on the phonograph.” — F. K. Clarkson , Supt.
Georgia Phonograph Company.
“ Receipts from siot machines with Artistic Whist-
ling one -third more than any other ." — Missouri
“Your Marine Hand records are gems.” -South
Dakota Phonograph Company.
“ Your music is the nest .” — Florida Jhoftograph
Send for catalogue and price-lists to
COLUMBIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY,
027 E St., N. W., Washington, I>. C.
TO FREELY USE
To Remove FrecWBs, Blotches, in fact all
claims. Is the parent
Stored. Highly medi-
cated aud UHcd for 20 yean*. HewSrv or powerful
drug* nold under variouB nainen ; Ahcy will ruin vour
akin. A TRIAL OF AMIIRUSIA C'KKAH
C’OXTI THE MOST SKKPTICAL,
Price, $ l per Jar. Delivered freo i n the United States.
H. M. C. LAVENDER SALTS.
INEXHAUSTIBLE, UNCHANGEABLE, UNAPPROACHABLE.
Ileil Made. Handsome fiottle. Price, .'►Oc.
Either articlo Bent on receipt of price. Send for Circular.
TheHOME MEDICATION CO. ,885th Ave. N.Y.
TWO YEARS AND A HALF
WITH THOMAS 1, EDISON,
A Superbly Illustrated (Stereopticon)
“THE WIZARD OF LLEWELLYN PARK.”
By Frank NL Deems, M. D., Ph. D.
Dr. Deems, while a member of Mr. Edison’s Ex-
perimental Staff, worked under his immediate per-
sonal supervision, and has, therefore, had exceptional
opportunities of studying the character of the great
inventor. He has spared neither pains nor expense
in the preparation of this lecture. The result has
been that wherever it has l>een delivered it has
been favorably received aud highly commended as
“thoroughly amusing,” “niehly enjoyable,” “ very
interesting,” “well prepared,” and “instructive.”
The views which illustrate it were made especially
for it by Mr. Edison’s expert photographer from his
extensive private collection of negatives. They were
selected with care, and are finished to perfection,
many of them being finely colored. For circulars
and terras, address
“ THE PHONOGRAM.”
SHOPPING BY MAIL.
Orders received and carefully executed for pur-
chases of every description. Newest and most ex-
clusive designs secured. Christmas selections a
specialty. Unexceptional references. Circular
forwarded on request.
MRS. M. It. FRY ATT, * j
339 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY’.
AT ^ ^
Geo. P. Rowell & Co.
No. io Spruce Street,
This novel and remarkable instrument pounds an alarm whenever the temperature
rises above, or falls below, any required points. It will be found of great value in
Offices, Schools, Hospitals, Living-rooms, Conservatories, Baths, Factories, and all places
where the maintenance of an equable temperature is of importance.
The Electric Fire-Alarm Thermometer.
This thermometer is designed to afford complete and unfailing protection to Build-
ings, Vessels, etc . against the danger of lire. It sounds an alarm at any required sta-
tion, however distant, immediately on the temperature in the room or compartment
where the thermometer is placed rising to a jKjint indicating any incipient combustion,
and long before any serious danger can be incurred.
The Nassau Portable Bell.
This is the most simple and inexpensive Portable Electric Bell ever constructed. It
can be used in any part of the house at pleasure, needs no attention, and gives the user
all the advantages of an electric bell without the necessity of employing an electrician.
No household should bo without one.
The Nassau Capsule Battery.
The above specialties, and many others, are operated by The Nassau Capsule Hal-
ten/, which is the smallest and most effective battery in existence, measuring only 3x5
inch. It is perfectly dry, can 1 m> used without wiring, and requires no electrical skill
in fixing or handling, tor household and experimental purposes of all kinds, it will be
found most useful and convenient.
Iii iintiweriiii? this advertbicineiit mention Tur Phonogram.
FOR ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER;
-ARC AND INCANDESCENT
MEASURING AND TESTING INSTRUMENTS,
• VOLTMETERS *
LINE WIRE, UNDERGROUND CABLES, OFFICE WIRE,
MAGNET WIRE AND LAMP CORD,
INSULATORS-GLASS AND PORCELAIN,
-SWITCHES AND CUT-OUTS,
INCANDESCENT LAMPS FOR ANY SYSTEM.
ALEXANDER, BARNEY & CHAPIN,
GEXEIIAL ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES,
Telephone Building;, - 20 Cortlandt Street,
Telephone and Telegraph Company.
G EX EH A L OFF I ( 'ES :
18 CORTLANDT STREET, NEW YORK.
A GREAT WORK,
Ex-President of Confederate States.
BY IIIS WIFE
Cloth, $5.00; Enslish (.rained Cloth, $6.50 ; Half Morocco, $7.50
Half Russia, S8.50; Full .Morocco, SI 2.00.
SOLD BY SUB8CHTFTIOX ONLY.
BELFORD COMPANY, Publishers,
18 and 22 East 18th St,, Ne>v York.
HOW TO FILE LETTERS
T HERE are only two methods for filing
letters and office papers, one which our
forefathers used and many of the present
generation are still using with all its in-
convenience, that is, to fold back and pigeon-
hole them. The other, which represents the
progress of the age, is the simple system
used in the
which requires no folding or endorsing, the
mere aofc ef placing the letter away files it,
and the reference at any time in the future
is immediate. If you are interested, send
for an Illustrated Catalogue and Price-List
• • $ •
which is thoroughly explanatory.
AMBERG FILE and INDEX GO.,
69 DUANE ST., NEW YORK.
JENI UNH * M COWAN, HUSTX88, NEW
Pads for Yost Typewriter
Smith Premier Ribbons
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ERWOOD A CO.,
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103 JjH Salle St., Chicago, Til.
10 Johnston St., Toronto . Out
ESTABLISHED HALF A CENTURY
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hot foun£ nT, hakes
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